Development of oscillatory synchronization (MEG) predicts language abilities in children

Synchronization of oscillations among brain areas is understood to mediate network communication supporting cognition, perception, and language. How task-dependent synchronization during word production develops throughout childhood and adolescence, as well as how such network coherence is related to the development of language abilities, remains poorly understood. To address this, we recorded magnetoencephalography while 73 participants aged 4–18 years performed a verb generation task. Atlas-guided source reconstruction was performed, and phase synchronization among regions was calculated. Task-dependent increases in synchronization were observed in the theta, alpha, and beta frequency ranges, and network synchronization differences were observed between age groups. Task-dependent synchronization was strongest in the theta band, as were differences between age groups. Network topologies were calculated for brain regions associated with verb generation and were significantly associated with both age and language abilities. These findings establish the maturational trajectory of network synchronization underlying expressive language abilities throughout childhood and adolescence and provide the first evidence for an association between large-scale neurophysiological network synchronization and individual differences in the development of language abilities.

Predicting the timecourse of object processing with MEG (vision + semantics)

Here, we test whether a model of individual objects—based on combining the HMax computational model of vision with semantic-feature information—can account for and predict time-varying neural activity recorded with magnetoencephalography. We show that combining HMax and semantic properties provides a better account of neural object representations compared with the HMax alone, both through model fit and classification performance. Our results show that modeling and classifying individual objects is significantly improved by adding semantic-feature information beyond ∼200 ms.

Dissociable roles for frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular networks in working memory

In our task, spatial cues indicating the relevant item in a WM array occurred either before the memory array or during the maintenance period, providing a direct comparison between prospective and retrospective control of WM. We found that in both cases a frontoparietal network activated following the cue, but following retrocues this activation was transient and was succeeded by a cingulo-opercular network activation.